Watercolor on Paper
Artist: Navneet Parikh
13.8 inches X 10.7 inches
The art of miniature painting is divided into schools and sub-schools, depending on thematic content, style and colour palette. The Rajasthani school is conspicuous by its attempts at innovation. Besides other subjects, the Rajasthani painter dealt with scenes from everyday life, religious festivals and ceremonies and other mythological subjects.This miniature painting depicts the pastime of the ladies at the royal court. These ladies who had no substantial duties to perform spent their time finding novel ways to amuse themselves. Dressed in rich attire, they are also adorned with exquisite jewellery. Their facial features, almost similar have oval faces with well-defined chins, sharp noses, shapely eyes and arched eyebrows. The rotating tops seem to have caught their fancy; the tops of same shape and size have varied patterns painted on them.What catches attention is the angular architecture depicted in the painting. The parapets have sharp angles and the arches vary. The lotus pond also displays the same angular element ? the only smooth contours in the painting belong to the women in leisure. The terrace opens out to dense vegetation and the deep blue skies.This description by Kiranjyot.
The Mughal school of painting runs parallel to the Mughal dynasty. It came into prominence in the sixteenth century, during the reign of king Akbar. It reached its zenith under the patronage of Akbar’s grandson – king Jahangir. The reign of the latter’s successor king Shah Jahan saw its decline and finally under the unsympathetic Aurangzeb it breathed its last. Indeed, as a school of art, the duration of Mughal painting was a limited one, extending only over approximately two and a half centuries. Actually, it has often been referred to as not exactly a school, but rather an exceptionally brilliant phase in Indian art.
The roots of Mughal painting lay in Samarkand and Herat, where under the patronage of the Timurid kings, Persian art reached its apogee. Babur, a descendant of Timur, and the founder of the Mughal dynasty, speaks of a person named ‘Bihzad’ as ‘a most eminent painter’. It was with the descendants of Bihzad and the deep personal interest taken by Akbar, the grandson of king Babur, that the Mughal school of art started off with a flourish.
Regarding the aesthetics of Mughal painting, one exceptional feature is its commitment to realism or the delineation of likeness. The subjects were majorly drawn from the extremely rich and magnificent court life under the Mughals. That this was a flourishing art during Akbar’s reign is borne out by the list of more than forty painters found in a book written during his era.
However, it was under Akbar’s son Jehangir that Mughal painting gained its highest peaks. Not only portraits and hunting scenes, but also scientific studies of botany and natural history found favor with the artists under the king’s support. The Mughal painters were asked to paint unusual specimens of flora and fauna in their exact likeness. Some of these skilfully painted pictures have survived till today, narrating to us the uniqueness of those rich times.
Under the reign of Shajahan, son of Jahangir, the Mughal school of painting entered its decline. The actual treatment of the subject matter is replaced with more decorative embellishments like rich flowery borders etc. Under Shahjahan architecture scaled new peaks (Taj Mahal etc.), but painting deteriorated. Finally, with the rise of Aurangzeb, Mughal painting breathed its last.