Archaeology – Antiquity

Estim. 1 200 EUR
For sale on Fri 14 May
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Estim. 120 EUR
For sale on Sat 15 May
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Estim. 460 EUR
For sale on Sat 15 May
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Estim. 500 - 700 EUR
For sale on Tue 18 May
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Estim. 1 000 - 1 500 EUR
For sale on Tue 18 May
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Estim. 700 - 1 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 18 May
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Estim. 200 - 300 EUR
For sale on Wed 19 May
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No estimate
For sale on Wed 19 May
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For sale on Wed 19 May
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Estim. 150 - 250 EUR
For sale on Thu 20 May
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Very Large Roman Door Handle Pair with Lion Heads. 2nd-3rd century AD. A pair of substantial bronze door knockers or furniture handles comprising a large circular appliqué with central high-relief lion-mask, emerging from a hollow, convex circular plate with four holes flanking the head, each lion holding a large ring in its mouth, radiating mane composed of thick locks, incised fur texture to the face.See Uccelli, G., Le navi di Nemi, Roma, 1940; Ghini, G., Il Museo delle navi romane e Il Santuario di Diana di Nemi, Roma, 1992, for similar appliques destined to the Nemi ships of the Emperor Caligula; similar specimens in the collection of the Museum of the Order of St John at the University of Birmingham inv. no.5616-5617, from Jerusalem; two nearly identical door knockers in the shape of lion heads in the Getty Museum, accession number 72.AC.91.4.9 kg total, 27cm each (10 1/2"). Property of a gentleman from Jerusalem; previously in an old Israeli collection; accompanied by a copy of Israeli export permit number 43725 and by an archaeological report by Dr Raffaele D'Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10605-174114.It seems that this style of door knocker was widely used in the province of Syria Palestine created by the Emperor Hadrian, during the period in which the adoption of Greek art by the Romans reached its peak. Adopting Greek custom and styles, the Romans spread the use of door knockers shaped like lions (a symbol connected with Alexander the Great, the lion of Macedonia) to the furthest reaches of their empire. In the classical world, lions symbolised power, wealth, and might. They were famously featured in many ancient myths, perhaps the most well-known being that of Hercules (Greek Herakles) slaying the Nemean lion; the first of his twelve labours. Such lion knockers were apotropaic guards for the house and family of the owner. In the Late Empire, the lion became a symbol of wisdom, royalty, power and leadership. [2] For this specific lot, 5% import VAT is applicable on the hammer price

Estim. 4 000 - 6 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Roman Gilt Silver Phalera with Winged Head of Medusa. 1st-2nd century AD. A substantial ornamental silver armour phalera with gilt detailing, embossed face of Gorgon Medusa to the centre with detailed eyes, eyebrows and mouth, strong nasal ridge extending towards the forehead, furrowed brow with a pair of wings emerging from the curly hair framing the face, a pair of snakes knotted beneath the chin; wide edge with beaded rim and wavy pointillé decoration; accompanied by a discoid bronze sheet to which the fastening pins were attached to.Cf. Jahn, O., Die Lauersforter Phalerae, Bonn, 1860, taf.1; Maxfield, V.A., The military decorations of the Roman Army, Los Angeles, 1981; D’Amato, R., Sumner, G., Arms and Armour of the Imperial Roman Soldier: From Marius to Commodus, 112 BC-AD 192, London, 2009, figs.157, 254-255; D’Amato, R., Roman Standards & Standard-Bearers (1), 112BC-AD192, Oxford, 2018, p.54; D’Amato, R. & Negin, A., Roman decorated armour, London, 2019, p.150, fig.137.113 grams total, 8.8-12.5cm (3 1/2 - 5"). From the private collection of a London antiquarian; acquired from Coins and Antiquities, formerly known as D.J. Crowther Ltd, Mayfair, London, UK, in 1970; accompanied by an expertise by military specialist Dr Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10623-174245.Discoid military decorations usually depicted the heads of the gods, spirits of the underworld, birds and lions, Medusa being the most popular subject. Sets of phalerae, similar to those shown on monuments dedicated to Marcus Caelius, Quintus Sertorius Festus and Celer Allius, were found in Neuss, Lauersfort and Newstead. Our phalera finds parallel in similar examples from the magnificent Lauersfort set, echoing the decoration visible on the gravestone of centurion Caelius from Bonn, depicted with a corona civica on his head; the best-known silver military decorations of the early Imperial Age. The higher officers in the Roman army had the custom of wearing such rich suits of phalerae with the straps attached directly to leather garments or doublets, worn over their armour. One such example can be seen on the gravestone of the Aquilifer G. Musius (Jahn, 1860, taf.II; D’Amato, 2018, p.54), where the phalerae are worn over a leather structure like a doublet over the subarmalis. Wearing a double-padded armour under the doublet provided twice as much protection to the warrior and enhanced the phalerae worn over the doublet. These decorations were awarded in sets, commonly of nine, although the sources confirm that this was not an absolute rule. They were worn in a similar fashion to medals on the chest, attached to a leather harness of straps, which ran straight around and up and down the front of the chest, and continued over the shoulders and around the back where they were fastened with buckles (Maxfield, 1981, pp.92-93"). [2]

Estim. 1 800 - 2 400 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Roman Silver Athlete's Strigil and Balsamarium. 1st-2nd century AD. A silver toilet set comprising: a strigil with curved C-section blade and tapering rectangular-section handle, with rectangular piercing at the terminal for suspension, a silver shell ornament applied to the junction between blade and handle on the reverse; a balsamarium or aryballos, with squat spherical body, collared shoulder, convex neck, everted rim and flared foot, with two comic theatre masks applied to the body, with loops to accept a handle; the masks with detailing to the faces and hair; the body with a concentric band of inlaid floral decoration; a partial handle with collars and decorative elements.See The British Museum, museum number 1868,0105.46, for a comparable toilet set; see The Metropolitan Museum, accession number 61.88, for a comparable silver strigil; see Roberts, P., Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum, London, 2013, for discussion.323 grams total, 6.1-19.6cm (2 1/4 - 7 3/4"). From the collection of a Surrey gentleman; acquired 1970-1980; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no. 10706-174980.Before the introduction of fat-based soaps in the late Empire, the usual method of cleansing by athletes, as well as bathers of both sexes, was a mixture of low grade olive oil, and a pumice. The oil was applied to the body and then scraped off by means of the long, scoop-like scraper, known as a strigil. A common form of public benefaction was money for a free distribution of such oil. The physical well-being of the gladiator was of the utmost importance so that they could perform at the games; vast sums of money were spent by the owners of gladiatorial schools on the training and upkeep of the athletes, and this would have included regular bathing, exercise and massage. [3]

Estim. 2 500 - 3 500 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Large Egyptian Hieroglyphic Shabti for a Priest Pa-Di-Usir. 30th Dynasty, 380-343 BC. A substantial pale green glazed composition shabti with tripartite wig and false beard holding agricultural tools, a hoe and a pick, in the crossed hands and a seed-bag behind the left shoulder, ten rows of hieroglyphs from Chapter Six (the ‘Shabti Chapter’) of The Book of the Dead on the body, for The Osiris, the Priest of Ptah, Pa-di-usir, who is in the middle of Herakleopolis, born of Sedet-iret-binet [‘Who destroys the Evil Eye”], plain dorsal pillar; mounted on a custom-made stand.Cf. similar examples published in Aubert, J-F. and L., Aubert, Statuettes Égyptiennes, Paris, 1974, pl.64, no.152; pl.65, no.154; James, G., The Amasis Collection, Lymm, Cheshire, 2020, S 9838, p.200; Schneider, H.D., Shabtis, Pt III, Leiden, 1977, no.5.3.1.262, pl.64.460 grams total, 24cm including stand (9 1/2"). From an old French collection and subsequently with a Hertfordshire gentleman from 1990s.Peter Clayton, FCILIP, Dip, Arch, FSA, FRNS writes: 'Herakleopolis, the modern village of Ihnasya, 15 km west of Beni Suef in the southern part of the Fayum, preserves the ancient name of the city, Nesi-nesu. It was a prominent city in the First Intermediate Period (9th and 10th Dynasties), 2134-2040 BC. Its chief god was the ram-headed Harsaphes, later identified with Herakles, hence its later classical name of Herakleopolis Magna. The temple was excavated by Eduard Naville (1891-2) and Flinders Petrie (1904"). A full set of shabtis, 365, one for each day of the year, was provided to stand in place of the deceased in the next world and carry out any agricultural work or heavy labour such as clearing the canals, all mentioned in the text of Chapter Six. It was normal for shabtis to include the name of the mother, shabtis naming the father of the deceased are exceedingly rare. Shabtis from this dynasty and the reign of Nectanebo II (360-343 BC) are particularly noted for their high quality and fine faces. Nectanebo II was the last native pharaoh of Egypt before the Persian conquest. His fate is unknown, possibly he fled south to the Sudan, his unused sarcophagus, found in Alexandria, is in the British Museum. Medieval legend (the Alexander Romance) recounts that he fled to the Macedonian court (i.e. the anti-Persian faction), was attracted by Olympias, wife of king Philip II, and became the father of Alexander the Great.' A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 1 000 - 1 400 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Large Egyptian Hieroglyphic Shabti for Hathor-em-Akhet. 30th Dynasty, 380-343 BC. A substantial pale green glazed composition shabti with tripartite wig and false beard holding agricultural tools, a hoe and a pick, in the crossed hands and a seed-bag behind the left shoulder, inscribed with seven rows of hieroglyphs from Chapter Six (the ‘Shabti Chapter’) of The Book of the Dead on the body, for “The Osiris, Hathor-em-akhet [“Hathor who is in the horizon”, apparently a unique name], born of Sheret”, plain dorsal pillar; mounted on a custom-made stand.Cf. similar examples published in Aubert, J-F. and L., Aubert, Statuettes Égyptiennes, Paris, 1974, pl.64, no.152; pl.65, no.154; James, G., The Amasis Collection, Lymm, Cheshire, 2020, S 9838, p.200; Schneider, H.D., Shabtis, Pt III, Leiden, 1977, no.5.3.1.262, pl.64.375 grams total, 20.5cm including stand (8"). From an old French collection and subsequently with a Hertfordshire gentleman from 1990s.Peter Clayton, FCILIP, Dip, Arch, FSA, FRNS writes: 'The incorporation of the name of the goddess Hathor in the deceased’s name suggests his close affiliation with the goddess, possibly because his mother was one of her priestesses or a devotee. A full set of shabtis, 365, one for each day of the year, was provided to stand in place of the deceased in the next world and carry out any agricultural work or heavy labour such as clearing the canals, all mentioned in the text of Chapter Six. It was normal for shabtis to include the name of the mother, shabtis naming the father of the deceased are exceedingly rare. Shabtis from this dynasty and the reign of Nectanebo II (360-343 BC) are particularly noted for their high quality and fine faces. Nectanebo II was the last native pharaoh of Egypt before the Persian conquest. His fate is unknown, possibly he fled south to the Sudan, his unused sarcophagus, found in Alexandria, is in the British Museum. Medieval legend (the Alexander Romance) recounts that he fled to the Macedonian court (i.e. the anti-Persian faction), was attracted by Olympias, wife of king Philip II, and became the father of Alexander the Great.' A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 600 - 800 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Graeco-Roman Gold and Emerald Necklace Element Set. 2nd century BC-3rd century AD. An assemblage of gold necklace elements comprising: twenty-four heart-shaped leaves modelled in the half round; ten cylindrical emerald beads; a gold chain with hook for suspension; a large emerald pendant in a gold frame with piecrust edge, a breloque to the lower edge from which an emerald bead with chain and pearl or iridescent glass bead is hanging; mounted in a custom-made display case.See Hiebert, F., Cambon, P., Afghanistan, crossroads of the Ancient World, London, 2011; D’Ambrosio, A., Gli ori di Oplontis, Napoli, 1987; Ogden, J.M., Gold Jewellery in Ptolemaic, Roman and Byzantine Egypt, Durham, 1990, cf. figs.277 (gold loop-in-loop chain necklet with emerald beads), 295 (emerald beads alternated to openwork pendants of trapezoidal form) and also 327, 412.46.62 grams total, 0.6-13.5cm (1/4 - 5 1/4"). Property of a London gentleman; formerly in a 1980s London, UK, collection; accompanied by an archaeological expertise by Dr Raffaele D’Amato and an independent specialist report and valuation by graduate gemmologist and jewellery expert Anna Rogers, GIA GG, BA, Gem-A, ref. no. 174325/24/03/2021; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no. 10666-174325.The conquests of Alexander the Great created unprecedented contacts among Europe and distant cultures, not only by spreading Greek styles across the known world, but also exposing Greek art and artists to new and exotic influences. Significant innovations in Greek jewellery can be traced even earlier to the time of Philip II of Macedon (r. 360/359–336 BC), father of Alexander the Great. Applications in the shape of hearts divided in half, are found for example in the Nomad tombs of Kushan, more specifically in Tillya Tepe, from the second quarter of the 1st century AD (Hiebert, Cambon, 2011, p.257, fig.164"). Emeralds and pearls came in fashion and were widely used in Ptolemaic Egypt, probably obtained from the Eastern Desert and the Persian Gulf. [36]

Estim. 10 000 - 14 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Egyptian Seated Nehemet-aui Statuette. 26th Dynasty, 664-525 BC. A bronze figure of seated Nehemet-aui modelled in the round, crowned with circlet of sacred serpent uraei, and an unclear form on top, possibly Bastet; circular recess in the forehead, possibly to accept an additional sacred uraeus, which was a symbol of royalty in a headdress or wig; forearms resting on lap, with fists clenched, in which would have been held a tall Was sceptre; detailing to the face, wig, hands, feet and anklets, with feet resting on a rectangular base; old handwritten label on base which reads '2036 / Egypte / Epoque / Saïte' in four lines; mounted on a custom-made display stand.See The Metropolitan Museum, accession number 26.7.845, for a Late Period statuette of Nehemet-aui with similarities to the 26th Dynasty statuette offered here, which is the only other known example of Nehemet-aui with a crown of sacred uraeus.1.3 kg total, 23.6cm including stand (9 1/4"). Property of a Kensington lady; formerly with Roseberys Auctions, 22 October 2019, lot 49; previously with Beaussant Lefevre, Paris, 24 October 2012, lot 5 (€19,000); old French collection label to the underside; accompanied by copies of the Beaussant Lefevre listing; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10591-173403.Nehemet-aui was a minor Egyptian goddess, representations of whom, be it in relief or in statuary, are very rare. She is believed to have been the wife of the snake god Nehebu-Kau, or of Thoth, the god of learning. On the occasion her representation has been discovered, she has, like Isis, been depicted nursing a child on her lap, and has also been represented with a sistrum on her head. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 5 000 - 7 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Roman Inked Wooden Testament Including a list of Various Clothing. Late 3rd-early 4th century AD. A bifacial wooden tablet: Side A with shallow recessed panel with seven lines of inked cursive text; Side B with inked cursive text over thirteen lines; pierced along the centre to accept binding strips; Prof. Dr. phil. Peter Rothenhoefer says: 'A Rectangular wooden tablet. On one side traces of inked script over fifteen lines (illegible"). On the other side seven lines containing a list of garments and shoes: dalmaticas duas, pala una, lineas duas, caracala una, mafortia dua, mafortia ... caligas cufas closa paria tria ... (= two dalmatics, one palla, two linen robes, one caracalla (a hooded tunic), two mafortia (short cloaks) ... boots, three pairs of closa ... This list of garments and shoes most probably was part of a Roman testament, from which we know similiar records. Most probably from the end of the 3rd or beginning of the 4th century.'For examples of wooden tabulae re-used as writing surfaces, see Thomas, J. D., Vindolanda: The Latin Writing Tablets, Britannia Monograph Series No 4, London, 1983; for examples of testamentary documents on wooden tablets that have survived, see FIRA III, p.47 for Anthony Silvanus from 142 AD and see BGU VII 1695 for Safinnius Herminus; for another from Transfynydd, North Wales, see Arch. Camb. 150, pp.143-156.See Rothenhoefer, P., Neue römische Rechtsdokumente aus dem Byzacena-Archiv / New Roman Legal Documents from the Byzacena Archive, (forthcoming).21.6 grams, 19 x 9cm (7 1/2 x 3 1/2"). Ex Monsieur Alain Sfez collection, Belgium; acquired by gift from his father Albert Sfez, 1965; acquired by Albert in the early 1950s; accompanied by two old black and white photographs.Wooden tablets were used as administrative documents (contracts, testament, etc.) by civil and military clerks, or simply for correspondence. The contract followed standard Roman legal formulae.

Estim. 600 - 800 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Estim. 2 000 - 3 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Roman Fresco of a Roman Military Commander. 1st century BC-1st century AD. An imposing fresco fragment representing a young military commander dressed in high rank Roman uniform, standing with his face slightly turned to the right and leaning on his left leg, the right leg brought slightly forward; the right hand holding a long spear of which the butt is visible, a round flat shield of cavalry type (parma) on his left arm; gladius hanging from a baldric on the left side of the body; the warrior wearing a short sleeveless tunic of Greek type, off-white in colour with light red reflexes, decorated by two white segments in the lower skirt, and a military cloak of cerulean colour, arranged over a muscled bronze torso armour; the legs protected by bronze greaves and head by a bronze helmet restored as an Italic type Buggenum surmounted by a white cylinder from which a horsehair crest emerges.The piece shows compositional similarities with the fresco of Vettii House in Pompei, representing the god Mars, cf. D’Amato, R., Sumner, G., Arms and Armour of the Imperial Roman Soldier: From Marius to Commodus, 112 BC-AD 192, London, 2009, fig.86.12.3 kg, 71 x 46cm (28 x 18"). Property of a private New York collection; previously with Pierre Bergé & Associés, 29 November 2014, lot 255; formerly in an American private collection, 1970s-1990; accompanied by copies of the relevant Pierre Bergé & Associés catalogue pages and an archaeological report by Dr Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10647-174367.The fresco has been previously interpreted as a representation of Alexander the Great, but a more careful analysis of the military equipment worn by the warrior allows us to consider it as a character from the Roman history or mythology, like the god Mars or the hero Marcus Iunius Brutus, Magister Equitum of the first Roman Res Publica, who freed the city from Etruscan tyranny. The bronze greaves and muscled armour – from the 1st century BC usually reserved for the military commanders – associated with the paludamentum suggests a high rank graduate of the Augustean or even of Caesar’s army, maybe a military tribune, as the model for the figure. However, his cerulean cloak could allow the identification with a Magister Equitum (cavalry commander) being the cerulean and blue associated with Neptune or Poseidon, protector of the horses. Also the combination of a cavalry shield, the parma, with the long cavalry spear and the Buggenum helmet (or the Boetian helmet restored as such) are visible on Volterra’s urns as fittings of 1st century BC Roman cavalrymen. If the man represented is a Magister Militum, and the original fresco referred to episodes of the Roman history, the identification with Brutus can be plausible, although the fresco, before restoration, missed the upper part of the helmet. If the Geminae Pinnae (twin plumes) were originally visible on it, we cannot exclude the interpretation of the figure as the god Mars, a more consonant image with the celebration of the Julio-Claudian family and its divine origins. The type of represented uniform could suggest a dating to the late Consular period. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 25 000 - 35 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Roman Inked Wooden Tablet Documenting Property Owned by Pomponius Servandus. Late 3rd-early 4th century AD. A bifacial inked wooden tabula: Side A with a recessed panel with multiple lines of cursive text following the grain of the wood; Side B with four lines of inked cursive text running across the grain of the wood; three piercings to the sulcius to accept binding strips; Prof. Dr. phil. Peter Rothenhoefer says: 'A Rectangular wax stylus writing tablet. In a recessed panel the dark remains of a waxed tablet with writing avoids. Traces of script are visible. As it was used many times the reading remains very difficult. On the outer side few inked lines written by Pomponius Servandus: Pomponius Servandus has, holds, and possesses the fields with 20 fig-trees in a region near the mountains (in regione submontanea"). I assume that the wax tablet was used much later again for this short ink-written notice.'For examples of wooden tabulae re-used as writing surfaces, see Thomas, J. D., Vindolanda: The Latin Writing Tablets, Britannia Monograph Series No 4, London, 1983; for examples of testamentary documents on wooden tablets that have survived, see FIRA III, p.47 for Anthony Silvanus from 142 AD and see BGU VII 1695 for Safinnius Herminus; for another from Transfynydd, North Wales, see Arch. Camb. 150, pp.143-156.See Rothenhoefer, P., Neue römische Rechtsdokumente aus dem Byzacena-Archiv / New Roman Legal Documents from the Byzacena Archive, (forthcoming).37.2 grams, 15.5 x 15cm (6 x 6"). Ex Monsieur Alain Sfez collection, Belgium; acquired by gift from his father Albert Sfez, 1965; acquired by Albert in the early 1950s; accompanied by an old black and white photograph.Wooden tablets were used as administrative documents (contracts, testament, etc.) by civil and military clerks, or simply for correspondence. The contract followed standard Roman legal formulae. Our wooden wax tablet (tabula cerata) was as usual used many times (e.g. the Bloomberg tablets from Roman London), and shows traces of repeated use.

Estim. 800 - 1 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Frankish Silver Buckle with Gold and Garnet Settings. 6th-7th century AD. A silver shield-on-tongue buckle and plate; plate and loop divided into decorative cells, the raised interlaced edges with rows of punched triangles, two pairs of opposing beast-heads to the short edges; each cell with an inset gold plate with filigree swirls and inset garnets; five domed gold bosses to the outer edges of the plate, each with a filigree collar; remains of attachment lugs for the leather belt to the underside.See Die Franken, Wegbereiter Europas, Mainz, 1996; Perin, P., ‘Aspects of Late Merovingian Costume in the Morgan Collection’ in From Attila to Charlemagne: arts of the early medieval period in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2000; Menghin, W., The Merovingian Period. Europe Without Borders, Berlin, 2007.223 grams, 15cm (6"). From the private collection of a London antiquarian; previously in a private UK collection since 2010; formerly in a private Belgian collection; ex Marcus Hollersberger, Munich, Germany, since at least 1987; accompanied by an archaeological expertise by Dr Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10719-175465.In 1959, the archaeologist Michel Fleury discovered the rich grave of Queen Arnegonda, the wife of King Clothars I (511-562) and mother of King Chilperich I (562-584 AD), underneath the cathedral St. Denis near Paris, the traditional burial place of the central French royalty since the age of Clovis I. The queen was buried in a sarcophagus and dressed in a purple-coloured silk skirt, held in place by a large leather belt that had a sumptuously decorated buckle plate and counter-plate. The length of our plate and buckle (15cm) matches with the one of the queen (16cm) and it is highly possible that it belonged to a noblewoman of the period, maybe a royal maiden of the Frankish Aristocracy. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 5 000 - 7 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Western Asiatic Zoomorphic Vessel with Stopper Lid. 1st millennium BC. A hollow-formed bronze figurine of a zebu with impressed eyes, crescent horns, socket between the shoulders with separate lid, loops for attachment cords.See a statuette of a zebu in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, accession number 64.7; for the iconography see Vats, M.S., Excavations at Harapp?. In two volumes with plans and plates. V. II. 139 Plates, Delhi, 1940; Winkelmann, S., ‘Transformation of Near Eastern animal motifs in Murghabo-Bactrian Bronze Age art’ in Peruzzetto A. et al. Animals, Gods and Men from East to West. Papers on archaeology and history in honour of Roberta Venco Ricciardi, Eds. BAR International Series 2516, 2013, pp.47–64.862 grams total, 18cm (7"). Property of a gentleman living in central London; previously with Bonhams, New Bond Street, London, 1 May 2013, lot 154; formerly in a private New York collection, acquired in 1987; accompanied by an archaeological expertise by Dr Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10717-175402.The majestic zebu bull, with its heavy dewlap and wide curving horns, was considered to be a symbol of majesty and power since the first civilizations of the Indus Valley. It was the leader of the herd, the strength and virility (then symbol of fecundity) of which protected the group and ensured the procreation of the species. This is the reason why it was often chosen for sacrificial rites. It probably represented the emblem of the most powerful clans or top classes of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa and it was the most impressive motif found in these cities, appearing constantly on painted pottery and bronze or clay figurines of the Indus area. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 18 000 - 24 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Roman Gorgon Type Cavalry Sports Helmet Mask. 3rd century AD. A bronze 'female-type' cavalry sports helmet mask of Medusa typology, modelled with the features of Gorgon Medusa; voluminous wavy hair intertwined in serpent-like curls and with three buns arranged like horns on the top of the head, the hair with central parting at the front; the eyes, nostrils and mouth delicately pierced; two piercings to the lower rim for attachment of the connecting straps; a slot to the top through which a fastening turning-pin secured the inner mask.Cf. Robinson, R., The Armour of Imperial Rome, New York, 1975, pls.359ff.; Garbsch, J., Römische Paraderustüngen, München, 1979; D'Amato, R., Negin, A., Decorated Roman Armour, London, 2017, figs.225ff.578 grams, 27cm (10 1/2"). From an important East Anglian arms and armour collection; acquired from a Dutch private collection in the 1990s; previously in a Swiss family collection since before 1980; accompanied by an academic report by military specialist Dr Raffaele D'Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10604-174115.The distinguishing features of this type were the division of the helmet into two parts on the ear line, and sometimes the removable central area of the mask covering the eyes and mouth. Among the large number of surviving Roman masks is a series which has been generically indicated by Robinson as 'female type' but more conveniently classified by A. Negin as Medusa mask helmets. A mask capable of being taken off at any time proves that this type of helmet could be used, not only during parades and other ceremonies, but also in combat. It is in battle that the use of masks depicting Medusa is most probable; in the heat of battle this image performed both of its functions – to protect the owner and to intimidate the enemy, with the face of the terrible Gorgon believed to be able to transform humans into stone. Masks of this type are well known from Aquincum (Austria) Madara-Shumen and Kalenik (Bulgaria), Krefeld-gellep and Weißenburg, (Germany"). One of the most beautiful specimens, also with horns on the head, is preserved and in the private collection of Plymouth, Providence Academy (Negin-D’Amato, 2017, fig.262"). A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 15 000 - 20 000 EUR
For sale on Tue 25 May
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Estim. 60 000 - 80 000 EUR
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Egyptian Epsilon Eye-Axehead. Middle Kingdom, circa 1850 BC. A flat bronze multi-tanged cutting eye-axehead, with three tangs having holes for the fastening to the haft by small nails or with cord, one part of the blade incised with hieroglyphic symbols.Cf. for the iconography Hall, H.L., Hieroglyphic texts from Egyptian stelae etc., in the British Museum, London, 1914, Part 5, Pl.7, BM inv. no.EA1147; Stilmann, N., Tallis, N., Armies to ancient Near East, 3000 to 539BC, Worthing, 1984, fig.8, p.94; for a parallel cf. Flinders Petrie, W., Tools and Weapons, British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account 22nd Year, 1916, UC, 1917, pl.VI, nos.164-167.178 grams, 19.5cm (7 3/4"). Property of a gentleman from Jerusalem; previously in an old Israeli collection; accompanied by a copy of Israeli export permit number 43725.Egyptian soldiers (ahauty) of Middle Kingdom represented in the tomb painting from the grave of Djehutyhotep at Deir el-Bersha are wielding this type of eye-axeheads. The shaft to which the axeheads are attached is furnished with a hand-guard. This traditional Egyptian axe (metnit) had a round or semi-circular blade of copper lashed to a wood staff. By the First Intermediate Period, when territorial conflicts and civil wars arose within Egypt, a new crescent-shaped axe blade made of bronze was devoted specifically to the fight. The design increased the length of the cutting edge, making the weapon more lethal. For this specific lot, 5% import VAT is applicable on the hammer price

Estim. 1 200 - 1 700 EUR
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Hellenistic Marble Sphinx Trapezophoros. 1st century BC. A white marble table support formed as a standing sphinx with erect body, prominent chest pushed gracefully forward, the female head with delicate chin and curly hair, elegantly dressed and falling on the shoulders in thick locks, the raised wings beautifully arranged with grooved plumage, ending with three large curving feathers at the top; the waist with hanging elements separating the human body from the lower section that originally would have been in the form of a lion's leg; rectangular supporting pillar above the head with profiled mouldings, traces of pigment to the hair, waist and wings.A very similar table support, decorated with a winged figure and carrying a conch, is held in the Israeli Museum, accession number 78.19.178; see the Israeli Museum, accession number 82.21.860, for a sphinx support in which the whole body of the sphinx is represented; see a similar table support in the National Archaeological Museum of Napoli, from the second peristyle of the House of the Faun in Pompey (inv.6869); for discussion of the location of the Dionysos Trapezophoros, found in Corinth see Robertson Brown, A., The city of Corinth and Urbanism in Late Antique Greece, Berkeley, 2008.39 kg, 76cm (30 1/4"). Property of a Kensington lady; ex Mansour Gallery, Davies Street, London, 2013; acquired from Boisgirard and Associes, Arts d'Orient Archéologie, Paris, 16 December 2008, lot 32; formerly in an old Swiss collection; accompanied by an archaeological expertise by Dr. Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10576-173390.Round and rectangular stone tables became widespread in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC. The upper part of their supports were often formed as human or animal heads and torsos, with an animal’s foot below. Sphinxes and other winged female creatures were very often used in the sculptures of the Graeco-Roman world as trapezophoroi (i.e support (phoros) of the table (trapeza)"). Sphinx-shaped supports were very common in early Imperial times, decorating the tables of estates of rich landlords, as revealed by excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. They derived from a type of support dating from the 5th century BCE, which may have been used for cult statues or thrones. Other marble trapezophoroi were realised with images of griffins or wild animals, although the griffin was a rarer trapezophoros, panthers, lions and winged creatures being more common. Busts of young men were sometimes used for this purpose, like the Dionysus Trapezophoros found in Corinth (Robertson Brown, 2008, p.120"). The term trapezophoros probably derives from the function of the priestess of Athena, who was carrying a table for holy services in front of the statue of the goddess in Athens. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 15 000 - 20 000 EUR
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Graeco-Roman Megarian Cup with Cherubs. 3rd-2nd century BC. A large ‘Megarian’ ware beaker in light brown clay with moulded relief decoration, the hemispherical body resting upon a flat base with a short flanged rim; a decorative frieze set in the upper two thirds of the body, depicting hunting scenes of sinuous panthers attacked by small erotes, armed with small round shields and short swords, sinuous tendrils and foliage elements emerging from the big flower forming the base surrounding the scene, the upper part with a band of decorative ovolo pattern.Cf. Baur, P.V.C., ‘Megarian Bowls in the Rebecca Darlington Stoddard Collection of Greek and Italian vases in Yale University’ in American Journal of Archaeology, vol.45, no.2, April-June, 1941, pp.229-248.154 grams, 12.5cm (5"). From an important London W1, gallery; previously acquired 1970s-1980s; accompanied by a positive Kotalla Laboratory thermoluminescence report No.10CM180321; and an archaeological report by Dr Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10631-174283.The term ‘Megarian’ bowls for this type of pottery is a modern convention for academic purposes. The name ‘Megarian’ was first given to this type of mould-made relief bowls in the late 19th century, because some of the first known examples were said to have come from the city of Megara. In reality such kind of terracotta originated in Athens in the 3rd quarter of the 3rd century BC, and since then have been manufactured in the course of time in almost every Hellenistic centres, especially in Alexandria. This relief-decorated pottery became more popular than painted pottery during the Hellenistic period. This class of hemispherical bowls was made in moulds and was characterised by decoration imitating metallic beakers. When the finished bowl was taken from the mould, it was probably dipped into varnish or dull paint and fired. According to Prof. P.V.C. Baur, the stamps used for making moulds were not produced in every manufacturing centre of ‘Megarian’ bowls, but they were made only in important centres such as Athens, Pergamon, Antioch and Alexandria, and that they were sold to potters throughout the Hellenistic world. The fact that the edge of the bowl is turned out suggests Athenian production, but a comparison with the decorative ovules and the erotes of the Delian Cup no.1913.203 of the Rebecca Darlington collection is also plausible. However, the foliage pattern is very similar to the specimen 2012.477.1 preserved in the MET, originating in Asia Minor which, especially in the Pergamon Kingdom, was thriving in the production of this type of pottery. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 2 000 - 3 000 EUR
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Elymaean Hellenistic Silver Bowl with Animals. 2nd century AD. A sheet-silver bowl with splayed foot, the body with scenes of hunting animals on a mountainous background, one with a wolf hunting bulls, a palm tree in the field; the other with collared dogs hunting boars and deer, the scenes separated by trees and an altar, one an oak tree, the other a laden date palm; decorative border above and below; the underside of the bowl with an incised rosette pattern and an Elymaean variety of Aramaic inscription.See Wenke, R.J., ‘Elymeans, Parthians, and the Evolution of Empires in Southwestern Iran’ in Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 101, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1981), pp. 303-315; Pfrommer, M., Metalwork from the Hellenized East, Catalogue of the Collections, the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, 1993; Carter, M.L., Goldstein, S., Harper, P.O., Kawami, T.S., Meyers, P., Splendors of the Ancient East, Antiquities from the al-Sabah collection, London, 2013; Christie’s, London, Antiquities Thursday 25 October 2012, item 23 [£250,000.00-£350.00.00], for a very similar cup.283 grams, 12cm diameter (4 3/4''"). Property of a London collector; from her family's private collection; formerly with a London gallery; acquired in the 1990s; accompanied by copies of the relevant Christie's catalogue pages and by an archaeological expertise by Dr Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10308-168913.Elymais was a local, so-called Hellenistic dynasty in south-western Iran that flourished during the Seleucid and Arsakid periods, circa 188 BC to 222 AD. Elymais minted its own money, conducted its own public works programmes, and was in other ways apparently independent until circa 215 AD, when documentary evidence suggests that the Parthian imperial government was once again in control at Susa, the capital of the kingdom. The art produced in this period was a magnificent symbiosis of Iranian and Graeco-Roman art. Here we can see how the naturalistic style used to depict the ferocious predators and the other animals, (especially the collars around the dog's neck), is a continuation of Hellenistic arts. In this cup, of Parthian style, trained western artisans must have been employed by their philhellenic rulers and by the aristocracy to produce articles of luxury. The inscription on this cup likely records the presentation of the bowl by a donor of royal lineage, such as a princess of the local ruling dynasty. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 80 000 - 100 000 EUR
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Estim. 1 500 - 2 000 EUR
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Estim. 400 - 600 EUR
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Roman Gold Satyr Mask. 1st century BC-1st century AD. A sheet-gold miniature mask depicting a bearded satyr (Silenus?) with open mouth and angry features with frowning brow, flat nose, fleshy cheeks, projecting bottom lip, unkempt hair and beard; mounted on a custom-made display stand.The face shown here is very similar in style to a marble satyr mask in the Capitoline Museum; see Sinclair, A., ‘Unmasking Ancient Colour, colour and the Classical Theatre Mask’ in Ancient Planet Online Journal, 2013, vol.4, p.8; for iconography of the bearded satyrs see Woodburn Hyde, W.W., Olympic victor Monuments and Greek Athletic Art, Washington, 1921.137 grams total, 18cm including stand (7"). Property of a Kensington lady; formerly in the private collection of Lothar von Berks, Berlin, Germany, acquired 1920-1930; accompanied by a four page examination report number G17121 by metal specialist Igor Goro and an archaeological report by Dr. Raffaele D'Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10660-173384.This interesting piece was made by means of embossing over a hard matrix with numerous folds and creases on the backside. However, besides the angry expression, the real attribution of the identity of our face is not straight forward, as it is missing the other elements linked with a particular bearded divinity, like Zeus, Poseidon or Hades. The facial traits recall those of a mythical satyr, of which we have various examples from the classical world. One is the majestic bronze head of a satyr from Olympia, today in the National Museum of Athens, variously interpreted as the head of a boxer, and dated to the Hellenistic period (3rd century BC, see Woodburn Hyde, 1921, fig.61"). The traits of our figure - especially the treatment of the eyes - give to our face the sullen gloomy look so characteristic of boxers and pancratiast, but also strong facial aspects of an angry satyr. Some other parallels point towards the head of a satyr as the best interpretation possible: the heads of satyrs in Metropolitan Museum (3rd-1st century BC, accession nos. 74.51.1497 and 14.130.10) and especially the marble satyr mask in the Capitoline Museum, Rome, dated to the 2nd century AD (accession number MC716"). A similar expression can also be found on the marble portrait with the torso of a satyr or centaur in Palazzo Altemps, Rome. The satyrs joining the Dionysian court, among them especially Silenus or Pappos, associated with the cult of Bacchus, were often portrayed in the Graeco-Roman world with angry, mischievous or lustful expressions. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 30 000 - 40 000 EUR
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Roman Gold Ring with Isis and Serapis. 1st century AD. A substantial gold ring with wide semi-circular hoop, expanding shoulders with a pair of openwork volute scrolls extending towards the oval bezel, the bezel with facing busts of Jupiter (Greek Zeus) as Serapis, and Juno (Greek Hera) as Isis, the goddess dressed in a himation fastened by a fibula; Egyptian crown and moon to the head (Juno Regina-Isis) respectively; a lion, two stars and the eagle of Jupiter over a globe between them.Cf. Spier, J., Ancient Gems and Finger rings, catalogue of the collections, the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, 1992, fig.466; for the discussion on the iconography of Jupiter Dolichenus and Juno Regina see Hörig, M. & Schwertheim, E., Corpus Cultus Iovis Dolicheni (CCID), Leiden, New York, København, Köln, 1987.15.11 grams, 25.84mm overall, 22.02mm internal diameter (approximate size British Y, USA 12, Europe 27.51, Japan 26) (1"). Property of a London gentleman; formerly in the Surain collection, since the 1980s; accompanied by an archaeological report by Dr Raffaele D’Amato and an independent specialist report and valuation by graduate gemmologist and jewellery expert Anna Rogers, GIA GG, BA, Gem-A, ref. no. 174323/24/03/2021; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10639-174323.The ring belongs to the shape M of the Spier classification, and the iconography corresponds to the Roman sealings of East Hellenistic typology. The counterpart to the portrait of Jupiter Serapis is the depiction of Juno Regina Isis, the goddess usually represented on the left side and Jupiter on the right side. The eagle is the usual attribute of the god, who in other representations as Dolichenus is dressed in complete military dress and is usually standing over a bull and not a globe like in our ring. In the Roman religion, Jupiter was obviously identified with Jupiter Optimus Maximus, the king of the gods. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 4 000 - 6 000 EUR
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Roman Marble Head of Harpocrates. 1st-2nd century AD. A life-size head of the divine child Harpocrates, his youthful face with rounded chin and chubby features, a coy smile on the parted lips, the deep-set almond-shaped eyes with heavy lids, the hair cascading in soft curly waves on either side of the head with a central top-knot; mounted on a custom-made display stand.See Daremberg & Saglio, Dictionnaire des Antiquités Grecques et Romaines, Paris, 1873-1917; the portrait has a good parallel with the image of Harpocrates represented with Isis and Osiris on a marble relief found at Henchir el-Attermine, Tunisia, dated to the last quarter of 2nd century AD, today at the Louvre (MA3128); see also the Vatican Portrait in Bennorf, O., Schoene, R., Die Antike Bildwerke des Lateranischen Museum, Leipzig, 1867, no.133.15 kg, 36.5 cm including stand (14 1/4"). Ex North London gallery; previously in a London, UK, family collection since before 1960; accompanied by an archaeological expertise by Dr Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10682-175204.Harpocrates was the Greek interpretation of the Egyptian god Harpa-Khruti (Horus the child), usually depicted as a small boy. Statues of Harpocrates are preserved in the Greco-Roman Museum of Alexandria (inv.25785), and at the Musei Capitolini, Rome (inv. Scu 646"). As in the Capitoline sculpture, the face here is dominated by wide eyes and softly modelled features proper to the young god, like the abundant hair falling down upon the neck. A facial portrait from another statue of the young god, in the Vatican Museum (Sala Corazze, inv. no.10270), shows the same hair without the headgear, and also here it is missing any indication of the typical finger gesture. Another head of the god is the one made in basalt at the Archaeological National Museum of Naples (inv.896) from the Borgia Collection, where the stylistic traits are decidedly Hellenistic. His statue was at the entrance of almost all temples, to indicate that in those places of the gods, should be honoured with silence, or, according to Plutarch, men who had an imperfect knowledge of the divinity should only speak of it with respect. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 20 000 - 30 000 EUR
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Estim. 400 - 600 EUR
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Bactrian Standing Zebu Figurine. 3rd-2nd millennium BC. A copper-alloy figure of a zebu with prominent horns and dorsal hump, large dewlap and detailed almond-shaped eyes; mounted on a custom-made display stand.See a statuette of a zebu in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, accession number 64.7; see Levine, E., Bunimovitz, S., Lederman Z., ‘A Zebu-Shaped Weight from Tel Beth-Shemesh’ in Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 61, no.2, 2011, pp.146-161, for discussion on the iconography of zebu; Pugachenkova, G.A., Dar, S.R., Sharma, R.C., Joyenda, M.A., Kushan Art in the North, Unesco, 1996.370 grams total, 12cm including stand (4 3/4"). Property of a gentleman living in central London; acquired on the London art market in 1963; accompanied by an archaeological expertise by Dr. Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10715-175403.Since the dawn of time, the bull has represented power, strength and nobility. This splendid votive and unusually large statuette depicts a zebu, the hump-backed bull common to Asian regions (bos indicus"). The tradition of casting single bronze figurines of zebu, marked the culture of Marlik similar to the civilization of Mature Harappa, where a similar statuette was found in Mohenjodaro. The custom of the creators of Marlik Tepe to put images of humpback bulls and especially ritual vessels for libation in the form of a zebu into the graves directly connects Marlikians with Late Harappan inhabitants of the North-West of South Asia. The tradition of casting paired bronze statuettes of zebu teams, characteristic of the Marlikians, is also directly reflected in Late Harappan finds of the North-West of South Asia. A bronze composition of two zebus supporting a platform with a kneeling woman on it comes from Uttar Pradesh (2000-1750 BC"). When drawing parallels between the archaeological culture of Marlik and Harappa, it should be pointed out that it is in Iranian Azerbaijan that the pure-blooded species of zebu, which are still very similar to the rock breeds of humped cattle of Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan, were found so far. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 3 000 - 4 000 EUR
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Bactrian Ceremonial Pendant. 3rd-2nd millennium BC. A bifacial lead discoid ceremonial pendant or weight with a bull's head at the centre; sub-rectangular handle above; series of eight pairs of lines decorating the width of the disc; the bull's head with wide raised eyes, long ears below tall horns and detail to the muzzle; on the reverse are eight pairs of lateral lines; mounted on a custom-made stand.Cf. Pottier, M. H., Matérial Funéraire de la Bactriane Méridoniale de l'Âge de Bronze, Paris, 1984, pp.99, 175, 217, for other examples of lead-handled weights with openwork designs.13 kg total, 42.5cm including stand (16 3/4"). Property of a London gentleman; formerly with the Mahboubian Gallery, London, UK; acquired in the 1950s; accompanied by an old collector's cataloguing sheet and photograph; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10164-166840.Among the most iconic Intercultural Style objects are the so-called lock weights. These were probably not weights but badges of high office, carried to indicate authority. Fragments of similar objects have been found throughout Mesopotamia, the islands of the Persian Gulf, on the Iranian steppe, as well as the Indus Valley. The bull was a popular and sacred animal in both Mesopotamia and the Indus civilisation. In Mesopotamia it was often associated with storm gods, such as Baal. In the Indus region it appears on seals and is often associated with a horned deity that has been identified as a proto-Shiva type figure. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 7 000 - 9 000 EUR
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Estim. 4 000 - 6 000 EUR
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Hellenistic or Sassanian Mace with Bull Heads. 1st century BC-7th century AD. A solid mace or sceptre comprising a square-section iron rod with modelled bronze finials, the top finial formed as three stylised bull heads with swept-back horns forming a small crescent behind the ears, swirls of hair beneath the horns and above the head; the bottom finial formed as a clenched right hand pierced through the knuckles.See Hackin, J., Recherches Archéologiques à Bagram, Mémoire de la Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan 9, Paris, 1939; see Muscarella, O.W., Bronze and Iron Ancient Near Eastern Artefacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1988, objects nn.419-420, for close parallels; also comparable with a mace head in the British Museum at inv.no.129396, and a mace head with ram heads in the Ashmolean Museum; see Kubik, A. and Nadeem, A., ‘Bronze Mace with three rams’ heads from Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford’ in Historia i ?wiat, issue 4, 2015, pp.157-174.1.25 kg, 60cm (23 1/2''"). Property of a London collector; from her family's private collection; formerly with a London gallery; acquired in the 1990s; accompanied by an archaeological expertise by Dr Raffaele D’Amato; this lot has been checked against the Interpol Database of stolen works of art and is accompanied by AIAD certificate number no.10307-168918.The bulls' heads combine both Hellenic naturalism and Iranian stylisation. This type of sceptre or military mace was used as a symbol of command. They were the products of Hellenistic and Persian workshops which existed in Mediterranean Syria (already part of the Roman Empire) to the Indo-Kushan Kingdom (see Met accession number 1986.502.4"). They all share the basic form of an iron rod with cast-on elements at the top and base. The tops exhibit a variety of shapes, usually a male or female head, either single or, as in our specimen, single or triple headed bulls or a ram. The base usually shows a knob, a spool grip and even a hand grasping a sphere. Many examples are kept in private collections, but there are a few with known provenance, one from Begram (Hackin, 1939, fig.352) and one in Bastan Museum from Dinkha Tepe in the Ushnu Valley of North-Western Iran. Although Hellenistic in conception, these sceptres were widely used by Persian leaders, especially the ones surmounted by bulls (Met accession number 1977.48) or a ram. Military scholars attribute these sceptres predominantly to the Sassanian period, and one can imagine army commanders and kings holding such maces when rallying and leading their armies. A video of this lot is available to view at TimeLine Auctions website.

Estim. 6 000 - 8 000 EUR
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Estim. 1 200 - 1 700 EUR
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Archaeology – Antiquity

Here we are dealing with the dawn of humankind. Archaeology, Antiquity and Excavated Object auctions feature objects and works of art from prehistory to Antiquity.
These online sales provide objects excavated by archaeologists during digs: minerals, flint objects, ceramic shards, fossils, dinosaur skeletons and such like.

They also provide art from the Mediterranean basin. In these auctions, fans of ancient Egyptian artefacts can buy engraved stelae, amulets and funerary statuettes sometimes made for a Pharaoh; lovers of Greek antiquities can tussle it out for ancient amphorae, hydriai, statuary and busts, while collectors of ancient Etruscan and Roman pieces can find oil lamps and mosaics

Did you know? The fossil auction market, previously the haunt of those boned up on natural history, now bids welcome to art lovers. For example, a rare complete Mammuthus skeleton discovered in Siberia, estimated at €450,000/500,000, recently fetched a spanking € 548,000 at Drouot.
A mammoth sum indeed…